Vietnam country profile

Vietnam Country profile
Vietnam Country profile
Vietnam Country profile
Vietnam Country profile
Vietnam Country profileVietnam is the eastern most country on the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated population of 92 million people, it is Asian’s 8th most populous country and the 13th most populous country in the world.

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Vietnam is the eastern most country on the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. With an estimated population of 92 million people, it is Asian’s 8th most populous country and the 13th most populous country in the world. Its capital city is Hanoi and its leading business city is Ho Chi Minh City in the south of the country. Since 2000, Vietnam's economic growth rate has been among the highest in the world and acheived economic growth of 6.7% in 2015.


Vietnam and Its Geographical Statistics


Map References:

Southeast Asia



Monsoonal in the north and tropical in the south  



South and north low flat delta; hilly and mountainous regions north and northwest; central highlands


Elevation Extremes:

Highest point:

Fan Si Pan

Lowest point:

South China Sea

Land Use:

Permanent crops:


Arable land:




Natural Resources:

Coal, manganese, phosphates, bauxite, chromate, timber, hydropower, offshore gas and oil deposits, rare earth elements


Natural Hazards:

Occasional typhoons that can bring extensive flooding to low lying areas and the Mekong River



International agreements:

Party to biodiversity,  desertification, climate change, endangered species, ozone layer protection and many more


Current Issues:

Soil degradation, slash and burn agriculture, water pollution and overfishing





Political Geography

Vietnam is a country that is located near China with borders that include one near Cambodia and another near Laos. South China Sea is located to the east of the country, and the Red River Delta is to the north. It also borders the Gulf of Thailand and the Gulf of Tonkin. The country has a total land area of 127, 881 square miles or 331, 210 square kilometers and has a coastline that is 2,140 miles or 3,444 km long. Total land area of Vietnam is comparable to the size of New Mexico.


Landscape and Climate

Vietnam’s climate is varied, depending on where in the country you are located. Those located along the China coast as well as those who are near the Gulf of Tonkin will experience monsoon winds from November to April. Temperatures are usually lower in the mountains when compared with temperatures in the plains and lower in the north in comparison with the south.


Political and Governmental Facts on Vietnam


Government Type:

Communist State


Country Name:

Long form (conventional)

Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Short form (conventional)


Long form (local)

Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam

Short form (local)

Viet Nam





Constitution of April 15, 1992


Administrative Divisions:

58 provinces and 5 municipalities


Executive Body:

Chief of State (president), Head of Government (prime minister), Cabinet (appointed by president)


Legislative Body:

Unicameral National Assembly


Judicial Body:

Supreme People’s Court





Vietnam is a socialist republic or communist state that has the president as head of state and the military’s nominal commander in chief. The prime minister is the country’s head of government and presides over the council of ministers. This council is composed of the heads of all 26 commissions and ministries as well as 3 deputy prime ministers. The unicameral legislature of the nation is called the National Assembly of Vietnam and is comprised of 498 members. It is higher than the judicial as well as executive branches of the state and is headed by a chairman. All appointees to government ministers are taken from the list of members of this National Assembly.

The country’s judicial system is handled by the Supreme People’s Court. This is headed by a chief justice. While it is the country’s highest court, it is still under the control or is answerable to the National Assembly of Vietnam. Other lower courts also exist in the country, and these include provincial municipal courts and local courts. In matters of national security, the military courts hold special jurisdiction.


Vietnam’s Economy

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

US$299.2 billion (2011 est.)

GDP (Official Exchange rate)

US$123.6 billion (2011 est.)

GDP Real Growth Rate

5.8% (2011 est.)

Labor Force:

46.48 million (2011 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

2.3% (2011 est.)


expenditures: $35.7 billion 
revenues: $32.8 billion (2011 est.)

Public Debt:

57.3% of GDP (2011 est.)




The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country that recently had to recover from war, bounce back from loss of support from its former ally the old Soviet Union, and overcome the rigidities of an economy that is centrally planned. With the government vowing to support international integration and economic liberalization, it is well on its way to economic stability. While the country was predominantly an agricultural nation pre-war, free market economic reforms in the mid-80s helped the economy grow with the help of privately owned commercial, industrial, and agricultural businesses.

The national economy now has manufacturing, high-tech industries, and information technology to thank for its steady growth in the new millennium. It also has its oil-producing capabilities to help increase its economic earnings year in and year out. Due to this economic upturn, the poverty rate in the country is declining and is even lower than that of its neighbors like India, China and the Philippines.


People and Culture

Vietnam has a population of around 85 million people, and majority of this, approximately 85.8%, is made up of people belonging to the Kinh or Viet ethnic group. These people are found mainly around the coastal plains and alluvial deltas of the country. Aside from this majority, the country also has 54 minority ethnic groups such as the Thai, Tay, Dao, and Nung. The Muong minority is said to dwell mostly in the highlands and ethnic Chinese known as Hoa are seen mostly in the lowlands.

When it comes to religion, people in the nation are mostly Buddhists, with 85% of the population following this belief. Taoism and Confucianism are also practiced in Vietnam. Other religions you can find here include Christianity, Protestantism, Hoa Hao, and Cao Dai. While a lot of Vietnamese believe in Buddhism, a vast majority do not practice it. It is also said that a lot of Vietnamese do not subscribe to a particular religion and do not consider that there is a god.

Vietnam has become one of the major tourist destinations in Asia of late. Some of the most popular places people visit inside the country includes Saigon, Hanoi, Nha Trang, and Ha Long Bay. The country is going into a tourism-development-frenzy and the Binh Duong tourist complex is one prime example of a tourist project being built to accommodate more visitors.

Cuisine in Vietnam is also making itself known worldwide with such dishes as the banh mi and pho becoming extremely popular outside of the country. Traditional Vietnamese cuisine is similar to most of the dishes that are cooked around Asia, with the main staple being either rice or noodles. These dishes are often cooked with soy sauce and very little oil. Other common flavors found in these foods include fish sauce, sugar, basil, mint, lime, and Serrano peppers.