Indonesia country profile

Indonesia’s Geographical Statistics
Indonesia’s Geographical Statistics
Indonesia’s Geographical Statistics
Indonesia’s Geographical Statistics
Indonesia’s Geographical StatisticsOfficially called the Republic of Indonesia, this country is an archipelago that consists of around 17,508 islands. With 33 provinces and a total area of 1,904,569 square kilometers, this southeast-Asian nation has over 238 million people within its borders.

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Indonesia’s Geographical Statistics

Officially called the Republic of Indonesia, this country is an archipelago that consists of around 17,508 islands. With 33 provinces and a total area of 1,904,569 square kilometers, this southeast-Asian nation has over 238 million people within its borders. If you were to combine all of the islands this country is made of into one land mass, you will have an island almost three times the size of Texas. This group of islands is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean and is considered both the largest archipelagic nation and has the largest Muslim population in the world.

This country was once a Dutch colony, having been colonized in the seventeenth century by the Netherlands. During World War II, these islands were controlled by the Japanese, but after the surrender of Japan to U.S. forces, Indonesia proclaimed its independence from Dutch rule. This did not come to fruition until a few years later and with the help of UN mediation when in 1949, the Netherlands finally gave Indonesia its sovereignty.


Map References:




Hot and humid with moderate highlands; Tropical



Larger islands come with interior mountains; Consists mostly of coastal lowlands


Elevation Extremes:

Highest point:

Puncak Jaya


Lowest point:

Indian Ocean

Land Use:

Permanent crops:



Arable land:





Natural Resources:

Natural gas, petroleum, tin, timber, nickel, bauxite, fertile soils, copper, gold, coal, silver


Natural Hazards:

Severe droughts, occasional floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, forest fires and volcanoes



International agreements:

Party to numerous agreements like biodiversity, desertification, climate change, law of the sea and many more


Current Issues:

Water pollution, deforestation, air pollution and smoke from forest fires






Political Geography

This Southeast-Asian country occupies an area that lies on both sides of the equator. With thousands of islands, 6,000 of which are occupied, Indonesia shares a lot of maritime and land borders with its neighboring countries. Some of the countries that surround Indonesia include those that they share land borders with, like East Timor, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea, and those they share bodies of water with, like the Philippines, Singapore, Australia, and a couple of Indian territories.


Landscape and Climate

Indonesia is found near the equator and essentially straddles this imaginary line, which means that the climate here is generally hot. Due to the fact that the country consists of numerous islands and is surrounded by bodies of water, humidity is also normally felt here most of the year. Humidity in the region is at a high of 80%. Unlike countries up north that experience four seasons, Indonesia only experiences 2 major seasons, a dry, summer-like season, and a wet monsoon season.

The country is composed of 17,508 islands, with a lot of coastal lowlands. Only the bigger islands in this archipelago can boast of mountain ranges and hills that rise in the horizon. Considered the second in the world when it comes to levels of biodiversity, with Brazil claiming the top spot, Indonesia’s flora and fauna are a mix of both Australasian and Asian species. These creatures and plants are found in the forests of these islands and these forests cover approximately 3/5ths of the country. 


Political and Governmental Facts on Indonesia


Government Type:



Country Name:

Long form (conventional)

Republic of Indonesia


Short form (conventional)



Long form (local)

Republik Indonesia


Short form (local)






August 1945 constitution with series of amendments added in 2002


Administrative Divisions:

30 Provinces and 2 Special regions and 1 special capital city district


Executive Body:

Chief of State, Head of Government and Cabinet


Legislative Body:

People’s Consultative Assembly, House of Representatives, House of Regional Representatives


Judicial Body:

Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, Labor Court






Indonesia is a Republic that is governed by a president. The country is also a unitary state, which means the power is found in the central government. The country’s president serves as the commander-in-chief of their armed forces and is also the head of state. He is also the director of policy making, domestic governance and foreign affairs. The president can appoint people into the council of ministers. He can also serve his country, if elected, for two terms of five years each.

The judiciary system of Indonesia consists of a few courts that include the State Court, the High Court, the Supreme Court, the Commercial Court, State Administrative Court, and Constitutional Court. Civil disputes are often handled by the State Court while appeals are under the jurisdiction of the High Court. The country’s highest court is the Supreme Court, and cases against the government are brought to the attention of the State Administrative Court. There is also a court for Sharia Law cases and this is called a Religious Court or the Pengadilan Agama.


Indonesia’s Economy


GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

US$1.121 trillion (2011 est.)

GDP (Official Exchange rate)

US$834.3 billion (2011 est.)

GDP Real Growth Rate

6.4% (2011 est.)

Labor Force:

117.4 million (2011 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

6.6% (2011 est.)


expenditures: $144.1 billion
revenues: $134.2 billion (2011 est.)

Public Debt:

24.5% of GDP (2011 est.)






The country has what is called a mixed economy, and this is due to both the government and the private sector playing important roles in the country’s economy. The country enjoys its standing as one of the G-20 Major Economies and is Southeast Asia’s largest economy as well. The president of Indonesia has predicted that they will be one of the countries in the top 10 nations with the strongest economies in the coming decade.

While the country was one of the hardest hit during the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis, with recovery slowed down due to corruption and political instability, the country has regained the investment grade rating it lost in 1997 by 2011. The GDP of Indonesia grew to 6.5% by 2011.


People and Culture

Culturally, Indonesia can be considered one of the most diverse since the country has around 300 ethnic groups within its borders. Every single group has identities that were developed over centuries and are influenced by a number of other cultures that include Indian, Chinese, English and Arabic cultures. These diverse cultures show up in the different art forms that are popularly seen across Indonesia, like Balinese and Javanese dances as well as the textiles like batik, ulos, ikat, and songket.

When you talk about Indonesian cuisine, you will find that diversity is also part of this. Influences from Chinese, Middle Eastern, Indian, and European cuisine can be seen in the many different dishes that are served in this region. Much like its other Asian neighbors, the staple food in Indonesia is rice; and the use of spices like chili as well as coconut milk in their meat, fish, and vegetable dishes is seen as normal.

The country allows people to freely choose which religion they will follow; however officially, the government recognizes only 6 religions. These include Buddhism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Protestantism, Confucianism, and Islam. While not considered an Islamic country, majority of the people in Indonesia are actually Muslims, with around 86% of the nation belonging to this religion. In fact, Indonesia is considered worldwide as the country with the most Muslims within its boundaries.