The Chinese government has prioritized rural problems in its “Number One Documents” for eight consecutive years (2004-2012), clearly demonstrating the great importance it attaches to the “Three Rural Issues” (agriculture, farmers, and rural areas). The “Three Rural Issues” are issues concerning the improvement of farmers’ living conditions, industrial development, and social progress. These issues arise from China’s uncoordinated rural/urban development and, in essence, the long-standing rural/urban dual structure. A breakthrough is needed to overcome the hurdles in traditional policy and system formulation. This session will focus on the policies needed to address and solve the “Three Rural Issues”.